Indonesia is one of the largest emmitters of green house gases due to being of a generator of deforestation and forest degradation. Besides the cause; industry, power, and transport sectors dominate Indonesia’s energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Mostly fossil fuel energy nonrenewable energy resources – is a second contributor of the emitting which will surrender green house gases notably CO2. Fossil fuel energy is threatened with volatility of fuel price and scarcity so that the alternatives are by reducing the consumption and acquiring renewable bioenergy sources.
One of the exceptional renewable materials on producing bioenergy is biomass. Biomass is abundant, recycable, biodegradable and inexhaustible lignocellulose materials obtained from plants of agriculture, pasture and forestry. In addition, it can be acquired from municipal wastes in the form of organic wastes from the kitchen. Despite of materials based starch and sugar; it is the major sources of bioenergy due to the capabilities. Bioenergy Consult reported that Indonesia produces 146.7 million tons of biomass per year, equivalent to about 470 GJ/y. It can be converted to produce some added-value such as bioetanol, biofuel, biopellet, biobricket without combusting directly. Some studies reveal that 150 Mt of biomass residues produced peryear can be converted into the electricity generation potential with about 50 GW or equivalent to roughly 470 GJ/year.
The development of bionergy based biomass is the best accelerator to achive Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) initiated by UNFCCC in accordance with the goal of Indonesia within mitigating climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 26 percent by 2020. Investing bioenergy based biomass should be applicable, affordable and sustainable for being infiltrated at each sector of Indonesians’ industry, power and energy releasing GHGs. The investment will encourage Indonesia to greening these sectors firstly. After greening these sectors, the further highlighting is Green Indonesia in which it should pertain all sectors of human livings.
The implementation of the bioenergy can be committed at houshold level in form of bioenergy– based small industries. The housholders can gain the abundance of biomass from their houses or surroundings. Afterwards, biomass could be converted into kinds of bionergy. Technology should be integrated so that government and companies could collaborate with housholders. However, Indonesia government should support financially and non-financially the programme to ensure the sustainability and affordability of the bioenergy.
A mission to be Green Indonesia through providing bioenergy based biomass is by reviewing three pillars of Sustainable Development Goals, namely economics, social and the environment. Global meaning of the implementation should counterbalance economic growth, social development and ecological maintenace, without making impartial the three. In the view of economic growth, the stock of bioenergy could increase income of multi-stakeholders, getting involved. Socially, the establishment of bioenergy industries based biomass will open avenue for unemployments to work. In the view of ecological benefits, it will reduce GHGs and accelerate CDM